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Islamic State of Iraq and Levant Organization (ISIL)



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ISIL emerged in the name of «Islamic state of Iraq and Levant» in 9th of April 2013 as
anemerge of « Islamic state of Iraq (established in 15 November 2006), and Nusra Front (established
in 24January 2012), which refused to complyto this emerge.
Declaration of emerge has encountered by initial civilian rejection by large segments of Syrian
activists, in addition to rejection by Islamic factions and brigades of Free Syrian Army as ISIL
tried to impose the State on areas under their control.
The initial rejection was soon turned into limited clashes with residents or Armed Fractions,
then the clashes developed into all-out and violent war at the beginning of this year, where
they use car bombs and improvised explosive devices among civilians, in addition to shell the
besieged towns by artillery, which issimilar to Syrian-regime behavior in punishing the whole
of society.
Origins: the root of ISIL back to ISIL of Jihad›s Base in the Country of the Two
RiversTQJBR(TanzimQaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn) that was started by Abu Musab al-
Zarqawi in 8 October 2004 as extension of main Qaeda organization, despite of the disagreement
within Salafi Jihadist Movement on Zarqawi›s policy.
This riftdeepened more because of many reasons as:
– The declaration of“ISIL» led by Abu Omar al-Baghdadi in 15 November 2006
– ISIL›s policy which contributed in the defection of most of theirallies and sympathizers
– The negative public opinion caused by the flagrant violations against residents whether in
Sunni or Shiite areas, and their focus on the bombings inShiite areas because of their sectarian
characterizing of the regional conflict in general and to Iraqi conflict in particular.
– Adopting radical theories permitted the kill their violatorswho challenging their rules,
even if they were from the same Jihadist Movement.

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