Clashes Between Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham and the Armed Opposition/Syrian National Army Leave Many Dead, Mostly Women and Children
Press release (Link below to download full report):
Paris – The Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR) announced in its monthly report released today that 60 civilians were killed in Syria, in October 2022, including 10 children, five women, and five individuals who died as a result of torture, noting that many civilian victims, mostly women and children, were killed in stray gunfire from clashes between Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS) and the armed opposition/Syrian National Army.
The 19-page report details the death toll of victims documented killed by the parties to the conflict and the controlling forces in Syria in October 2022, particularly focusing on those who died due to torture. The report also details the most notable incidents during this month, as well as shedding light on the work SNHR has been doing concerning the issue of extrajudicial killing.
The report draws upon the information gathered from our constant daily monitoring of news and developments, through SNHR’s extensive network of relations with various sources, in addition to analyzing a large number of photographs and videos.
The report reveals that the Syrian regime has failed to register the deaths of any of the hundreds of thousands of citizens it killed since March 2011 in the death records of the civil registry, adding that the regime exerts absolute control over the issuance of death certificates, which are not made available to any of the families of its victims, whether these were killed at the hands of the Syrian regime or by other affiliated parties, or to the families of the missing and forcibly disappeared. The Syrian regime only allows death certificates to be issued for those who meet the narrow criteria set by the regime and its security services. The report notes that the vast majority of victims’ families are unable to obtain death certificates from the Syrian regime, for fear of linking their name to that of a person who was detained by the regime and killed under torture, meaning that he or she was a dissident who opposed the Syrian regime, or of their loved one being registered as a ‘terrorist’ if s/he is wanted by the security services; additionally, many victims’ families have been forcibly displaced outside the areas controlled by the Syrian regime.
The report further reveals that on August 10, 2022, the Minister of Justice in the Syrian regime’s government issued Circular No. 22 specifying the procedures for the conduct of proceedings related to registering deaths within Sharia courts. The circular included new conditions stipulating that five items of evidence must be submitted to and approved by the relevant judges in proceedings related to registration of deaths. It also requires that all relevant courts involved in death registration cases comply with the circular’s content. The circular also imposed security clearance conditions on judicial authorities to register death cases, increasing the security services’ intrusion.
The report notes that October saw the lowest monthly death toll so far in 2022. As the report notes, 60 civilians, including 10 children and five women, were killed in October. Moreover, the report documents that five civilians, two children and three women, were killed by stray gunfire in the midst of clashes between armed opposition factions and HTS, after the latter launched an offensive to take control of wider territories. The offensive was launched from multiple points in areas under HTS’s control, and clashes ensued, extending to encompass wide areas of the northern suburbs of Aleppo. The report records the killing of one media worker at the hands of armed opposition factions/Syrian National Army, personnel as well as one medical worker who was killed by other parties.
The report also notes that October saw more deaths by landmines across Syria. In October, revealing that five civilians, including two children, were killed by landmines during this month, raising the death toll from landmines since the beginning of 2022 to 117 civilians, including 61 children and nine women. AThe report further documents that 22 civilians, including two children and two women, were killed by gunshots whose source was unidentified.
The report documents the death of 60 civilians, including 10 children and fivewomen (adult female) at the hands of the parties to the conflict and the controlling forces in Syria in October 2022. Of these, the Syrian regime killed seven civilians, including one child, while the SDF killed five civilians. In addition, armed opposition factions were responsible for the death of seven civilians, including two children and two women. Meanwhile, ISIS killed one civilian, while HTS killed one woman. Finally, 39 civilians, including seven children and two women, were killed by other parties.
The report notes that Aleppo governorate saw the highest death toll of victims documented killed in October, accounting for approximately 33% of the total death toll, followed by Daraa, 23%, and Deir Ez-Zour, 18%. Most of the victims in all governorates were killed by other parties.
Furthermore, the report reveals that SNHR documented the death of five individuals due to torture in the month of October. Of those, three died at the hands of Syrian regime forces, while the SDF and armed opposition factions were each responsible for one death due to torture.
As the report notes, the evidence collected by SNHR indicates that some of the attacks documented in the report were deliberately directed against civilians and civilian objects. These attacks, along with indiscriminate bombardment, have resulted in the destruction of vital facilities and buildings. The report additionally notes that there are reasonable grounds to believe that the war crime of attacking civilians has been committed in many cases.
As the report further notes, the use of remote bombings to target densely populated areas reflects a criminal mindset intent on deliberately inflicting the greatest possible number of deaths, which is a clear contravention of international human rights law and a flagrant violation of the Geneva VI Convention, Articles 27, 31, and 32.
The report calls on the UN Security Council to take additional steps following its adoption of Resolution 2254, and stresses the importance of referring the Syrian case to the International Criminal Court, adding that all those involved in perpetrating crimes against humanity and war crimes should be held accountable.
The report also requests that all relevant United Nations agencies make greater efforts to provide food, medical, and humanitarian assistance in areas where fighting has ceased, and in internally displaced persons’ camps, and to follow up with those states that have pledged voluntary contributions.
The report calls for the implementation of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ doctrine (R2P) after all political channels have proved fruitless throughout all the agreements reached, the Cessation of Hostilities statements, and Astana agreements that followed, stressing the need to resort to Chapter VII, and to implement the norm of the ‘Responsibility to Protect’ doctrine, which was established by the United Nations General Assembly.
The report further recommends that the international community should work to launch projects to create maps revealing the locations of landmines and cluster munitions in all Syrian governorates. This would facilitate the process of clearing them and educating the population about their locations.
The report additionally calls on the Independent International Commission of Inquiry (COI) to launch investigations into the cases included in this report and previous reports and confirms the SNHR’s willingness to cooperate and provide further evidence and data, as well as calling them on to focus on the issue of landmines and cluster munitions within the next report.
The report also stresses that the Syrian regime must stop the indiscriminate shelling and targeting of residential areas, hospitals, schools, and markets, as well as ending its acts of torture that have caused the deaths of thousands of Syrian citizens in detention centers, and comply with UN Security Council resolutions and customary humanitarian law.
Lastly, the report calls on all the parties to the conflict to provide detailed maps of the locations where they have planted landmines, especially those present in civilian locations or areas near residential communities, as well as making several additional recommendations.